Exposition of the Divine Principle (New York: HSA-UWC, 1996)


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Compiled by Gerard Roberts (BTheol)

Part 1, Ch. 1, 1.1 The Dual Characteristics of God

The Korean term 완성 (wansung) is translated in the Exposition of the Divine Principle as "perfect/perfection". The actual meaning is "complete/completion". The Chinese character 完 (wan) means "finish", and 成 (sung) means "become". The Korean words used for "perfect" is 완벽 (wanbeuk) or 완미 (wanmi), which are comprised of the characters "finish (完) a specific type of jade artifact (璧)" and "finish (完) beauty (美)", respectively. Although theoretically, with our understanding of beauty, finished and beautiful might also sound correct, but the fact is the Korean terms for perfection "wanbeuk" and "wanmi" are not used in place of the term for completion "wansung". So there is a clear distinction between the concepts of completion and perfection. (Reported by Rev. Namhi Hwang - thank you)

Part 2, Ch. 4, 7.2.7  공생공영공의주의와 공산주의 The Ideals of Interdependence, Mutual Prosperity and Universally Shared Values versus Communism

Unificationist scholars Dr. Yoshihiro Masuda and Dr. Sang Hun Lee translate 공생공영공의주의 as "the principles of co-living (symbiosis), co-prosperity, and co-righteousness." For an explanation see pp 185-191 in:

Masuda, Yoshihiko. “F. D. Maurice, His Christian Socialist Movement, and Some Thoughts on ‘Socialism of the Heavenly Side’.” Journal of Unification Theology 3 (Sun Moon University: Korea, September 1998): 153-99. Download pdf here.

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